Syntactic analysis exercises (with commented template)

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Indicate the only sentence in which the subject is indeterminate.

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The verb is in the third person plural and thus we cannot identify the subject; unless this indication had been given in the context. For example:

I spoke to my parents and they said it was here.

In this case, the subject of "They said it was here" would be hidden: "(They/my parents) said it was here.".

As for the remaining alternatives:

a) Words fail me. (simple subject: the words)

b) We run away in fear. (hidden subject: us)

d) Didn't I say it was here? (simple subject: me)

e) There are people inside. (prayer without subject, remembering that the verb "haver" is impersonal when it expresses existence)

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I need what? The verb "need" needs a complement to make sense. who needs, needs of something. As this complement must be accompanied by a preposition, it is an indirect object.

As for the remaining alternatives:

a) I am happy with your grades. ("with your notes" is a nominal complement, because it completes the meaning of the adjective "happy")

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b) This is bad for children. ("to the children" is a nominal complement, because it completes the meaning of the adjective "evil")

c) Be true to your principles. ("to its principles" is a nominal complement, because it completes the meaning of the adjective "faithful")

d) He let out a cry of pain. ("a shout" is a direct object, because it completes the meaning of the verb "released" and is not accompanied by a preposition)

Identify the alternative in which the subject and predicate are correctly classified.

a) Teachers and students made the video.

Compound subject: teachers and students. / Verbal predicate: they made the video.

b) The family and neighbors called the police.

Composite subject: family, neighbors, police. / Verbal predicate: called.

c) She is beautiful.

Simple subject: she. / Verbal predicate: she is beautiful.

d) There were still students in the room.

Simple subject: students. / Nominal predicate: there was still in the room.

e) They speak for the elbows.

Hidden subject. / Verbal predicate: they speak for themselves.

feedback explained

Correction of the remaining alternatives:

b) The family and neighbors called the police. (compound subject: family and neighbors / verbal predicate: they called the police)

c) She is beautiful. (simple subject: she / nominal predicate: is beautiful)

d) There were still students in the room. (prayer without subject / verbal predicate: there were still students in the room)

e) They speak for the elbows. (indeterminate subject - verb in the 3rd person plural / verbal predicate: they speak for their elbows)

What is the syntactic function of the terms “on vacation” in the sentence “Enjoy your vacation.”

feedback explained

Make good use of what? The word "benefit" is a noun, that is, it is a name. It needs a complement to make sense: "Enjoy of vacation.". As it is completing a name, "from vacation" is a nominal complement.

The highlighted term in the sentence “The prize was received by the representative of the team” is:

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The passive agent indicates who performs an action. In the sentence “The award was received by the team representative”, “by the representative” is indicating who received the award.

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The prayer "Everyone left the lecture bored." has two cores. We can see this more easily by separating the prayer in this way:

"Everyone left the lecture.", in which the predicate is verbal (its head is the verb "went out")

and

"They were annoyed.", in which the predicate is nominal (its head is not a verb, but a noun, which in this case is the predicate of the subject "aborecidos"). Remembering that in the nominal predicate the verb is always linking, in this case it is "were".

As for the remaining alternatives:

a) Became a celebrity. (nominal predicate, because the head is the predicate of the subject "celebrity" - "turned" is a linking verb that indicates change of state)

b) He turned the wine glass over the boss. (verbal predicate, because the head is the verb "turned", which in this case is a transitive verb)

c) I walked all day. (verbal predicate, because the head is the verb "andei", which in this case is an intransitive verb)

d) I'm so tired! (nominal predicate, because the head is the predicate of the subject "tired" - "ando" is a linking verb that indicates state)

feedback explained

Just the prayer "I've read, reread and will read again." presents a compound sentence, because it is the only one formed by more than one clause. In this case, it is formed by three sentences "I read, I reread and I will read".

Remembering that a sentence needs a verb or verb phrase. For example, "I read, I reli" are verbs and "I will read" is a verb phrase.

The simple sentence has only one clause, that is, it contains only one verb or one verb phrase. Therefore, the remaining alternatives present this type of period.

The song captivated listeners of all ages.

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Now, let's do the full syntactic analysis of the sentence:

The song captivated listeners of all ages.

simple subject: music (music is its core);

verbal predicate: captivated listeners of all ages (captivated is its core);

transitive verb: captivated;

direct object: listeners;

adnominal adjunct: of all ages.

a) verbal, because its head is a verb

b) nominal, because the verb is attributing a characteristic to the subject

c) verb-nominal, because it has two nuclei: an action verb and a subject predicate

d) verbal, because its nucleus is a name

e) nominal, because its head is a verb

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In the sentence “The book purchased is a classic” the predicate is nonimal, because the verb - which is a linking verb - is attributing a characteristic to the subject (linking verb: é; subject predicate: classic).

Identify the alternative that presents the correct syntactic function of the highlighted terms.

a) direct object, indirect object, subject

b) adnominal adjunct, nominal complement, subject

c) adverbial adjunct, passive agent, aposto

d) adverbial adjunct, nominal complement, adnominal adjunct

e) adverbial adjunct, passive agent, vocative

feedback explained

"Now" is an adverbial adjunct, because it is indicating a temporal circumstance.

"Da Escola" is a nominal complement, because it is completing the adjective "near" (near where?).

"As Minhas Primeiras" is an adnominal adjunct, because it characterizes the noun "vacation", without the presence of a verb as an intermediary.

"My first vacations" is the subject of the sentence, "vacations" is the head of the subject, and the remaining terms are adnominal adjuncts.

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