What is life expectancy?

Life expectancy, also called life expectancy, is the average number of years that the population of a country can expect to live, if the same living conditions experienced at birth are maintained. Life expectancy is closely related to the quality of life that a country has, as factors such as education, health, assistance social, basic sanitation, work safety, violence rates, absence or presence of wars and internal conflicts influence it. directly.

As life expectancy in a country is influenced by different conditions, it has not always been the same. Throughout history, it varied according to the living conditions presented, decreasing in times of conflict and pestilence and increasing according to the rise in the population's living standards. The Industrial Revolution, which began in the 18th century, was a milestone in the evolution of life expectancy rates around the world, since the medical progress and the emergence of sanitation and hygiene infrastructure resulting from industrial development were responsible for sharp reduction in mortality rates worldwide, which caused a large population growth and, consequently, an increase in life expectancy In all world.

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Currently, life expectancies in developed countries tend to be higher than those in underdeveloped countries, because the The economic development of these countries, in most cases, is accompanied by high standards of living, which increases life expectancy. of the population. This, unfortunately, is not seen in countries where social and economic vulnerability is high. This reality can be seen in the life expectancy rates* of developed and underdeveloped countries in the year 2015. While life expectancies in countries like Japan (89.79 years old), Switzerland (82.50 years old), France (81.75 years old), Spain (81.57 years old) and Germany (80.57 years), all developed countries, were over 80 years old, in underdeveloped countries, as Nigeria (53.02 years), Mozambique (52.94) and Afghanistan (50.87), they didn't even reach 60 years of age.

Life expectancy is also uneven in relation to gender. Women have a longer life expectancy than men in most countries. This happens due to several factors, such as:

  • the greatest demand of women for medical care. For this reason, the diseases can be diagnosed early, which results in a lower mortality rate among women;

  • the high crime rates among young males, which increases the mortality rates of men in this age group;

  • heavy and highly dangerous activities are more performed by males, which results in a greater number of work accidents involving men.

In Brazil, the Brazilian life expectancy has grown progressively over the years. In 54 years, according to the IBGE, Brazilian life expectancy grew 26.6 years, from 48 years in 1960 to 74.6 years in 2014. This fact demonstrates that the country's development in recent decades has improved the population's quality of life and this has impacted life expectancy. In addition, Brazil also has differences in terms of female and male life expectancies. According to IBGE, women's life expectancy was seven years higher than the male estimate in 2013, thus following the global trend.

NOTE

* Life expectancy data for Japan, Switzerland, France, Spain, Germany, Nigeria, Mozambique and Afghanistan are from CIA *


By Thamires Olimpia
Graduated in Geography

Source: Brazil School - https://brasilescola.uol.com.br/o-que-e/geografia/o-que-e-expectativa-vida.htm

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