Deng Xiaoping [Teng Hsiao-ping]

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Chinese politician and communist leader born in Sichuan province, main inspirer of the reaction against Maoism and the introduction of the latest major political and economic reforms in China (1980-1990). He studied in France and the Soviet Union, and returned to his country to develop the political and military organization of the Red Army in the south of the country. Linked to the Communist Party since his youth, he participated in the Long March commanded by Mao Tse-tung, and with the victory of the communists (1949), went on to occupy high positions in the government, as deputy prime minister (1952) and general secretary of the Party Communist (1954). He was instrumental in changing Sino-Soviet relations over the next decade. Dismissed during the cultural revolution, a movement that ended at the IX Congress of the Chinese Communist Party (1969), he was arrested and accused of following capitalist trends.
He resumed the post of deputy prime minister at the time of creating that of deputy chairman of the Party's central committee and member of the Politburo (1975). Strongman of Mao Tse-tung's government, upon Mao Tse-tung's death (1976) he was temporarily removed from power by Hua Kuo-feng. but he soon returned to being China's chief political leader, once again becoming the country's strongman. From the following year he moved away from Maoist postulates, fighting radical opponents, especially the so-called gang of four. He became president of the Central Military Commission of the CPC (1981), a position he held until his resignation (1990). He initiated economic reform (1984), rejecting the Soviet model.

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He implemented a market economy and pursued a policy of bringing Japan and the United States closer together, attracting foreign capital to the country. He reconnected with the Soviet government (1989) and, together with Mikhail Gorbatchev, announced the normalization of relations between China and the Soviet Union. In the political field, he remained adamant in defending a single party, with strict control over any opposition. He died as a result of complications caused by Parkinson's disease and lung infection, in Beijing, with his image still negatively marked by the authorization for the National Army violently crush student movements for democratic reforms, concentrated in Tiananmen Square in Beijing (1989), causing thousands of deaths.

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