Syntactic and morphological analysis

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In Portuguese, words can be analyzed separately or within a sentence. Analysis that considers only the word is called morphological analysis, and the one that analyzes the word related to others within the sentence is syntactic.

In morphological analysis, the grammatical classes (noun, verb, adverb, pronoun, numeral, preposition, conjunction, interjection, article and adjective) are highlighted. Therefore, each word will be analyzed as if it were unique. At that moment, there is no interest in the role that the word plays within the prayer. See the example:

Julia broke her wallet.

Julia: noun

broke: verb

A: article

Portfolio: noun

  • Note that, in morphological analysis, it is as if each word were cut out of the sentence, since the interest, in this case, is to find the grammatical class.

In syntactic analysis, the word is not studied in isolation, as it is related to other words. Therefore, syntactically, words come to play a role in prayer. Let's analyze the same words in the example, but now we'll look for the function, that is, the role played by each one within the sentence.

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Julia: Subject

Broke - Direct transitive verb

The chair: direct object

A: adnominal deputy

Chair: direct object core

Did you see the difference? When the analysis is morphological, use the 10 grammatical classes, however, if the analysis is syntactic, try to find out what role words play within the sentence.Next, follow the 10 grammar classes and their syntactic functions.

1 - Substantive:subject's core, direct object, indirect object, predicative, passive agent,nominal complement and bet;

Heads up: The noun can also perform the functions of adjunct and adverbial adjunct. In these cases, they appear in adjective or adverbial phrases.

2 -Adjective: Predicative and Adjunct Nucleus;

3 - Article: adnominal deputy;

4 - adjective pronoun: adnominal deputy;

5 - noun pronoun: performs the same functions as the noun;

6 - Numeral: adnominal deputy;

7 - Verb: nucleus of verbal predicate and verb-nominal predicate;

  • Heads up: In the nominal predicate, the linking verb is not a nucleus, functioning as a bridge between the subject and the subject's predicative.

8 - Adverb: adverbial adjunct core;

9 -Preposition: Connective (connector element);

10 - Conjunction: connective (connector element);

11 - Interjection: has no syntactic function.

When the syntactic analysis is done together with the morphological one, it is called Morphosyntactic Analysis.

By Mayra Pavan
Graduated in Letters

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