Respiratory system: how it works, organs, exercises

O systemrespiratory is the system responsible for guaranteeing the captureinoxygen of the environment and the releaseofgascarbonic. Also, this system is related like smell, that is, our ability to allow odors is also related to the speech, due to the presence of the so-called vocal folds in one of the organs of the respiratory system.

Read too:Lung Breathing

Summary

  • The respiratory system is a system related to the uptake of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide into the environment.

  • The respiratory system can be divided into two parts: a conducting part and a respiratory part.

  • The conductive portion comprises the nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and terminal bronchioles.

  • The respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli are part of the respiratory portion.

  • In the respiratory portion, gas exchange occurs, that is, the oxygen removed from the external environment is made available for the blood, and carbon dioxide enters the respiratory system to take the opposite path to oxygen and be eliminated for the quite.

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  • Breathing takes place thanks to two breathing movements: inspiration and expiration.

  • Breathing is dependent on the respiratory center in the medulla.

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Organs of the respiratory system

The organs of the respiratory system are: nasal cavities, pharynx (nasopharynx), larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and lungs. See below a little more about each of these important bodies:

Look at the major organs of the respiratory system.
Look at the major organs of the respiratory system.

  • Nasal cavities: O firstlocal where the air passes. In them it is possible to observe threeregions: the vestibule, the respiratory area and the olfactory area. O vestibule is the anterior and dilated part of the nasal cavities, which communicateswiththe outside environment. THE regionrespiratory stands for biggerpartof thecesspoolsnasal. Finally, we have the areaolfactory which corresponds to parthigher of the nasal passages, which is rich in chemoreceptors of smell.

  • Pharynx: it is a organmusculomembranous common to the digestive and respiratory system. The part that is part of the respiratory system is called the nasopharynx, while the digestive part is called the oropharynx. the nasopharynx is localizedposteriorly à cavitynasal.

  • Larynx: it is a pipe of about 5 cm in length that presents formirregular and acts guaranteeing the connection between the pharynx and the trachea. At larynx, it is possible to perceive the call epiglottis, which is nothing more than an extension that extends from this organ towards the pharynx and preventswhatfoodenterthe respiratory system. Besides the epiglottis, we found the presence of calls in the larynx pleatsvocals, that are responsible for producing sound.

  • Trachea: it is a pipegraduatedpercartilages hyalines in C-shape, just after the larynx. the trachea branches off giving rise to twobronchi, called primary bronchi.

  • Bronchi: they are branchesgivestrachea, which penetrate each into a lung, through the hilum region. These bronchi, called bronchi primaries or major, penetrate through the lungs and branch offinthreebronchi at the lungright and two at the lungleft. These bronchi, called secondary or lobar, they branch into tertiary or segmental bronchi, which branch out into the bronchioles.

  • Bronchioles: they are branchesFrombronchi, they have a diameter of about 1 mm and have no cartilage. these too branch out, forming the terminal bronchioles and, later, the respiratory bronchioles. You bronchiolesrespiratory mark the transition to the respiratory part and open into the so-called alveolar duct.

  • Pulmonary alveoli: they are structures that are part of the last portion of the bronchial tree and are locatedat theFinalFromductsalveolar. They are similar to small pockets, have a thin epithelial wall and are the place where gas exchange takes place. Generally, the alveoli are organized into groups called the alveolar sac.

  • Lungs: they are organs in Formatincone which have a spongy consistency and have most of their parenchyma formed by the alveoli, the presence of about 300millionsinalveoli in the lungs. Each lung is lined with a membrane called the pleura. A child's lung is usually pink in color, while an adult's lung may have a darker color due to greater exposure to dust and soot.

The lungs have their parenchyma formed mainly by alveoli.
The lungs have their parenchyma formed mainly by alveoli.

Conductive portion and respiratory portion

We can divide the respiratory system into two parts: the conducting and the respiratory.

  • Conductive portion: é graduated by cesspoolsnasals,nasopharynx,larynx,trachea,bronchi,bronchioles and bronchioles terminals. As the name implies, this portion allows the air inlet and outlet, but its function does not end there, it is in this part that the air is cleaned, moistened and heated.

  • Respiratory portion: é graduated by the bronchiolesrespiratory,ductsalveolar and alveoli, which are the parties responsible for the occurrence of gas exchange. It is in this portion that the inhaled oxygen will pass to the blood and the carbon dioxide present in the blood will pass to the respiratory system.

How the respiratory system works

The respiratory system works ensuringthe entry and exit of air from our body. the air initially goes into by cesspoolsnasal where it is moistened, heated and filtered. he then Followforthe pharynx, later to larynx and to the trachea. The trachea branches into twobronchi giving access to the lungs. The air then proceeds from the bronchi to the bronchioles and finally comes to alveolilungs.

Gas exchange takes place in the pulmonary alveoli.
Gas exchange takes place in the pulmonary alveoli.

US alveoli occur the exchangesgaseous, a process also called hematosis. The oxygen present in the air that reaches the alveoli dissolves in the layer that covers this structure and diffuses through the epithelium to the capillaries located around the alveoli. In the opposite direction, the diffusion of carbon dioxide occurs.

Read too:Cellular respiration

Control of breathing in humans

human beings have neurons in the bulb region that guarantee the regulation of breathing. the bulb perceives changesat thepH of the fluid from the surrounding tissue and triggers responses that guarantee changesat therhythmrespiratory.

When the levels in gascarbonicincrease in the blood and in the cerebrospinal fluid, there is a drop in pH. This is due to the fact that the carbon dioxide present in these places can react with water and trigger the formation of carbonic acid (H2CO3). This can dissociate into bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) and hydrogen ions (H+). The increase in hydrogen ions causes the pH to drop.

The bulb then notices these changes, and signalsthey aresent for the intercostal muscles and diaphragm forwhatoccuraincreasegivesintensity and respiration rate. When the pH returns to normal, there is a reduction in intensity and respiratory rate.

It is noteworthy that changes in the level of oxygen in the blood trigger few effects on the bulb. However, when the levels are too low, the breathing rate increases.

Read too: Types of Animal Breathing

Inhale and Exhale

Breathing is achieved thanks to the performance of two breathing movements: inspiration and expiration.

Breathing movements ensure the entry and exit of air.
Breathing movements ensure the entry and exit of air.

  • Inspiration: guarantees the Entranceinair in the respiratory system. In this process there is the contractionofdiaphragm and the intercostal muscles, leading to expansiongivesboxthoracic and decreased pressure inside it.

  • Expiration: when the airleavesofsystemrespiratory. In this process the musclesthoracicrelax, as well as the diaphragm, leading to reduced rib cage and increased internal pressure.

Exercises on respiratory system

Below are two exercises that address the respiratory system theme.

Exercise 1

(UFPB) A person affected by swine flu had the clinical condition aggravated by a viral pneumonia that led pulmonary inflammation, with accumulation of fluid and resulting obstruction in the functional units of the lungs. In these circumstances, it is correct to say that the access of oxygen to (to)

a) larynx and pharynx.

b) trachea and alveoli.

c) pharynx and bronchioles.

d) bronchioles and alveoli.

e) bronchi and trachea.


Resolution of exercise 1: Letter D. As the functional units of the lungs were affected, we can conclude that the bronchioles and alveoli were compromised. The respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli constitute the respiratory portion of the respiratory system.

Exercise 2

(MACK) The control of human respiratory rate is done by ____________ based on the rate of ____________ blood, which is transported mainly in the form of ____________ .

Check the alternative that correctly and respectively fills the spaces of the previous sentence.

a) brain; O2; oxyhemoglobin.

b) cerebellum; CO2; carbohemoglobin.

c) bulb; CO2; bicarbonate.

d) cerebellum; O2; oxyhemoglobin.

e) brain; CO2; bicarbonate.


Resolution of exercise 2: Letter C. The bulb is able to perceive changes in the pH of blood and cerebrospinal fluid. When there is an increase in carbon dioxide, it combines with water and forms carbonic acid, which can dissociate into bicarbonate ion and hydrogen ion.

By Ma. Vanessa Sardinha dos Santos

Would you like to reference this text in a school or academic work? Look:

SANTOS, Vanessa Sardinha dos. "Respiratory system"; Brazil School. Available in: https://brasilescola.uol.com.br/biologia/sistema-respiratorio.htm. Accessed on June 27, 2021.

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