You operatorsargumentative are elements that serve to highlight the argumentative strategies as well as to cooperate in the cohesion of the text, through the relationship between the many different ideas presented. There are several functions that can be performed by operators, such as comparing arguments, indicating assumptions, among others. Each function has a set of possible elements to be used, but it is necessary to pay attention to the context of use, as it can interfere or change the meaning of the operator.
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What are argumentative operators?
THE argumentation it is, according to some linguists, a fundamental activity of the language, considering that, whenever we say something, we move concepts, ideas and values in defense of a vision of the world. However, in addition to this implicit argument, when we have
Argumentative operators are, thus, linguistic elements capable of highlighting the argumentative features of the utterance, thereby pointing out the direction or direction in which the text is turning back. They can be either single elements, such as conjunctions, or more complex elements, such as phrases or structures with more than one word.
Some textual genres require the use of operators, as these are genres that have the textual type argumentative that has, as its main purpose, to present a point of view on a certain theme, positioning itself on it and with strategies to convince its readers/listeners, aiming to attract them to it thought.
The operator's function is to indicate which type of reasoning and argumentative strategy is being used by the author, so when choosing a connective to evidence such relationships, it is necessary to pay attention to the desired meaning, so that the conjunction is able to fulfill the desired function.
Function of argumentative operators
The functions performed by the argumentative operators are diverse and meet different textual demands. The following is a list of the main functions of the argumentative operators in the text.
Reinforce the argument for the same conclusion: when using a series of ideas, all aimed at the same conclusion, and one of them receives a weighty emphasis, usually initiated by some element that demarcates this importance, such as "including".
Adding arguments for the same conclusion: when using the argumentative operator to link ideas that add up to the same conclusion.
Introduce conclusion related to previous argument: when using the argumentative operator to initiate the conclusion related to arguments that were presented previously.
Introduce alternative arguments that lead to opposite or alternative conclusions: when the operator is used to create possibilities or alternative conclusions: “either this or that”.
Establish a comparison relationship for a given conclusion: when using the argumentative operator to mark a comparison between ideas that lead to a particular conclusion.
Enter an explanation: when some statement made earlier is explained and the argumentative operator is used to mark the beginning of that explanation.
Counter arguments of contrary conclusion: when the argumentative operator marks an idea of adversity with the presented conclusion.
Introduce presupposed contents: when using the operator to indicate assumptions of ideas that will be developed.
These are the main functions that argumentative operators perform in textual genres that require explicit argumentation. However, other functions can be performed in the text, depending on the argument used. Regardless of the function, the argumentative operator will be responsible for evidencing this established relationship, thus, it is essential that he is adequate to the required function.
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Types of Argumentative Operators
Like functions, argumentative operators are divided into types. Each operator group categorizes a argumentative function. The following is a list with the function relationship and types of argumentative operators:
Argumentative reinforcement: “up to”, “even”, “even”, “inclusive”.
Sum of arguments: “and”, “also”, “still”, “not only”, “but also”, “adds”, “additional”, “further”, “in addition”, “the same way”.
Conclusion Introduction: “therefore”, “therefore”, “therefore”, “in light of the above”, “in this way”, “in summary”, “therefore”, “hereinafter”.
Introduction of opposite conclusions: “or”, “or else”, “wants this…wants that”.
Comparison between arguments: “more than”, “so… how”.
Explanation Introduction: “because”, “since”, “since”, “this is”, “as well as”, “in the case”, “proof of it”, “for this”, “in consequence”, “this entails”.
Oppose contrary conclusion: “but”, “however”, “however”, “nevertheless”, “although”, “even if”, “since”.
Introduction of assumptions: “already”, “yet”, “now”.
Purpose code: "in order that", "aiming at".
Indication of compliance or voice of authority: “second”, “according to”, “according to”, “as he stresses”, “as he considers”.
Time stamp: “as”, “at first”, “at the same time”, “at the time”, “previously”, “afterwards”.
It is important to highlight that, despite being grouped in the same category, argumentative operators cannot be inserted or replaced based on this criterion alone. It is necessary analyze-if the context in which the operator will be placed, seeking to adapt it to the other meanings of the text as well as the requirements of the textual genre.
In addition, it is common to find elements framed in different grammatical classes, like:
This is common because the argumentative operators does not referm to a category of word classes, but to a linguistic strategy in the construction of texts. It is even possible that other operators are used in text production, there are several possibilities valid, but the adaptation to the textual genre is a fundamental exercise for the argumentation to be developed with quality.
Question 1 – (Enem)
the world is big
The world is big and it fits
In this window over the sea.
The sea is big and it fits
In bed and mattress to love.
love is big and it fits
In the brief space of kissing.
(ANDRADE, Carlos Drummond de. poetry and prose. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Aguilar, 1983)
In this poem, the poet made a stylistic option: the reiteration of certain linguistic constructions and expressions, such as the use of the same conjunction to establish the relationship between sentences. This conjunction establishes, among the related ideas, a sense of:
Alternative C. In this question, there is a game with the argumentative operator “and”. It, which is commonly used to add information in the poem, plays an oppositional role. Reading carefully, it is clear that the me lyric it opposes the idea of greatness of things to the smallness of where they fit, thus, they are adversative ideas. Furthermore, if the “and” is replaced by “but”, the reader will notice that the opposition between the ideas is evident.
Question 2 – (Enem)
Hannah's children were good, a true and juicy thing. They grew up, took a bath, demanded for themselves, naughty, moments more and more complete. The kitchen was finally spacious, the stove was out of order. The heat was strong in the apartment they were slowly paying for. But the wind whipping at the curtains she had cut herself reminded her that if she wanted to, she could stop and wipe her forehead, looking at the calm horizon. Like a farmer. She had planted the seeds in her hand, not others, but these only.
LISPECTOR, C. Family relationships. Rio de Janeiro: Rocco, 1998
The author uses the connective twice but in the presented fragment. Observing aspects of the organization, structure and functionality of the elements that articulate the text, the connective but
A) expresses the same content in the two situations in which it appears in the text.
B) breaks the fluidity of the text and impairs comprehension, if used at the beginning of the sentence.
C) occupies a fixed position, being inappropriate to use it in the opening of the sentence.
D) contains an idea of temporal sequence that directs the reader's conclusion.
E) assumes distinct discursive functions in the two contexts of use.
Alternative E. In this matter, the same operator is used in two different contexts and also operates different functions. The first “but” is used to create a contraposition of ideas, as it creates the contrast between the heat and hardness of life and the breeze and the possibilities of life. In the second use, despite the impression of contrast, the effect of the "but" is actually to reaffirm what was said earlier, "the seeds that she had in her hand”, this can be proven by replacing “but with “and yes”, in which the previous idea is reinforced.
By Talliandre Matos
Source: Brazil School - https://brasilescola.uol.com.br/redacao/operadores-argumentativos.htm