Analogy is a relationship of resemblance established in between two or more distinct entities. The term comes from the Greek word “analogía” which means “proportion”.
An analogy can be made, for example, between head and body and between captain and soldiers. Head (brain) and captain are two analogous entities. They have a similar function, which, in this case, is to command, to give orders. Likewise, corps and soldiers exercise the same function which is to obey orders.
In Philosophy, analogy is a way to find out why objects or ideas are similar. In Grammar, analogy is a phenomenon responsible for the creation of a new linguistic form, it is the reason for the formation of some words.
Analogy in Biology
In biology, analogy and homology are terms related to the evolution of species. Analogous components are those that, despite having different origins and constitutions, present a similarity in morphological or functional scope.
Analogous structures are those that perform the same function but have a different embryological origin, for example, the wing of a bird and the wing of an insect (flying is a similar function). The opposite happens with homologous structures, for example, the human arm and the front paw of a dog, they are different species but with origin in a common ancestor.
analogy in law
In the legal field, analogy is a method of integrating the gaps in the law. An analogy occurs when a comparison is made between different cases, but with a similar problem, so that the same answer arises. The analogy is based on the principle of legal equality, and also states that there must be the same solution for the same infraction or reason for the law.
In some cases, the analogy is not applicable, as in criminal law (except in the case in bona partem); on bail; in tax laws; in legal transactions (and in the waiver).