To write a good argumentative essay on organ donation, it is important to read to understand a little more about it. This will allow you to more clearly expose the problem you intend, explain, present a proposal for intervention - such as what is requested in Enem, and draw conclusions.
Next, we propose the following steps to ensure a successful essay on the topic, including meeting a possible proposal for an Enem essay.
1. Understand what organ donation is
Organ donation is the removal of organs or tissues from a person, living or deceased, for a sick person who needs a transplant and is on a list waiting for a donation.
In the case of deceased people, Law 9,434 establishes that donation can only happen after brain death has been confirmed - when the brain stops functioning. In addition, the act of donating requires the consent of a family member.
2. delimit the subject
Before you start writing your text, you need to delimit the subject, which means defining the theme.
The Enem tests already bring the theme, but if you are faced with the task of writing about organ donation in a situation other than Enem, it is necessary to define specifically what your text will deal with. After all, organ donation is a very wide-ranging subject.
On the subject of organ donation, some topics could be:
- Lack of information on organ donation;
- The reality of the health service and organ donation;
- Donation and fear of organ trafficking.
Once the topic is defined, you need to think about what you want to cover in your text.
Possible approach to the topic "The lack of information in organ donation"
With regard to this topic, we can think about the reaction of a family when they lose a loved one and are surprised by the decision between donating their organs or not.
If the family has never thought about this situation, when making this decision, the first idea is to deny the donation; because nothing matters in that moment when someone dear is lost.
Clarification on this subject would help the family to answer affirmatively, and without fear, about their intention to donate organs.
Therefore, giving visibility to the subject in society would promote its discussion at home, preparing people to take a stand on it even before they are surprised by an eventuality.
Possible approach to the topic "The reality of the health service and organ donation"
Brazil is the second country that carries out more organ transplants in the world. Of these transplants, 90% are financed by the SUS.
Despite this achievement, the waiting list of recipients is still quite large compared to the numbers of brain deaths that occur - from which potential donors arise.
Although most donations do not continue due to lack of family authorization, the lack of infrastructure has a great impact.
It turns out that to donate, you need a specialized team to do so. In many cases, there is a donor, but there is no team ready to give the proper treatment to the procedure, making it unfeasible, because waiting for the team, the time of use of the organ for transplantation is outdated.
Thus, investing in the formation of medical teams specialized in organ transplants can be as important as educating the population on the subject and encouraging organ donation from a familiar.
If the supply of organs grows on the one hand, it is necessary that professionals also grow in number to meet this demand.
Possible approach to the topic "Donation and the fear of organ trafficking"
Despite the willingness to help, many families of potential donors also face the fear that their relative's organs might enter the organ trafficking system.
As a result, the waiting list could be manipulated, benefiting patients with greater purchasing power. Worse still, it could benefit corrupt health professionals who, for lack of information from the family, could try to charge them for a service that is free.
It is important for everyone to know that when donating organs, the donor's family does not pay or receive any amount of money.
In addition, among family members, there is also the fear that the health team may neglect to care for the sick family member, causing their death, with the purpose of selling their organs.
Although information on the subject is very important to allay certain fears, a greater investment in hospital structure would allow more transplants to take place so that organs are not overvalued economically.
3. Survey data
Researching on the subject not only helps to build your idea, but also provides that data found can be used in your text, giving it more ownership.
Regarding Enem, don't worry if you're surprised by a subject you don't know about. That's because the test brings motivating texts that help in the construction of ideas, including data that can be mentioned in your essay, and that are very important to give credibility to what you are writing.
Look for information in books, magazines, newspapers and websites specialized in the subject:
According to ABTO - Brazilian Association of Organ Transplantation, in the latest Register statistic Brazilian Transplant Brazil recorded a 3.5% increase in transplantation in 2016 compared to 2015.
The biggest factor inhibiting transplantation is the refusal of families. Although refusals have decreased slightly, in an interview, 43% of families said they do not authorize the donation.
In Brazil, which is the second largest transplant in the world, 90% of transplants are financed by the Unified Health System (SUS). However, the waiting list is extensive and has more than 30,000 patients, with more than 20,000 waiting for a kidney.
4. include a quote
In addition to mentioning data, citations can greatly enrich your text. Reflect on something interesting said by someone distinguished and that matches the ideas you presented.
For example, on the possible proposal to promote the discussion about organ donation at school, the following quotes could be used:
- "Education is the most powerful weapon you can use to change the world."(Mandela)
- "If education alone does not transform society, without it, neither does society change." (Paulo Freire)
- "Man is nothing but what education makes him."(Kant)
To help you find a quote:
- Quotes from various topics to use in writing
- Quotes from philosophers to help with writing the Enem
5. Structure and write your text
It's time to structure your text:
Introduction: present the subject of your essay, indicating to the reader what he/she will find in your text, that is, what problem is dealt with in it.
In percentage terms, the first part of the essay occupies 25% of the entire text, which would be 1 paragraph in the Enem essay;
Development: develop the ideas presented in the introduction in a dissertation-argumentative way, that is, exposing your ideas with arguments that support them.
The second part of the essay needs more space, 50% of the entire text, about 2 paragraphs in the Enem essay;
Conclusion: finish the text by relating the problem presented with the ideas you defend and the conclusions drawn from everything that was mentioned. It is in this part that you present the intervention proposal that Enem's newsrooms demand.
25% of the text is dedicated to this part, which corresponds to about 1 paragraph in Enem's writing.
Ministry of Health - saude.gov.br
ABTO - Brazilian Association of Organ Transplantation - www.abto.org.br