Verbs: classification, inflections, tenses and modes

You verbs constitute a part of speech that is responsible for expressing an action, a state, a desire or an event, or even a natural phenomenon, that's why this class is fundamental to our communication.

The verbs inflect on time, mode, number and person, which makes its study complex. Although there are many elements that make up this class of words, the dedication to study it is necessary to reach the standard standard of our tongue.

Read too: Verbal complements: direct, indirect and passive agent

verbal structure

Verbs are words responsible for indicating action, state and phenomena of nature.

Verbs are classified into

  • 1st conjugation verbs: terminated in -air;
  • 2nd conjugation verbs: ending in -er;
  • 3rd conjugation verbs: ending in -ir and -or.

The vowels "a", "e" and "i" are called thematic vowels.

The structure of the verbs consists of a radical, which is the part that usually remains fixed (in the case of regular verbs); The vowelthematic, which shows the conjugation of which the verb is part, as we presented above; and the

endings, which grammatically mark the time, mode, number and person.

The basic structure is based on: stem + theme vowel + ending. The following table presents some segmented verbs to better illustrate this explanation.

Radical

Vowelthematic

Ending

To play

play-

-The-

-r

we play

play-

-The-

us

Run

Run-

-and-

-r

ran

Run-

-and-

-ram

Leave

Part-

-i-

-r

we will leave

Part-

-i-

-we will

the verb suffers push ups, that is, it is modified according to the context in which it is inserted, changing the time, the mode, the number (plural or singular) and the people (1st, 2nd or 3rd person), in order to grammatically adapt to the rest of the environment in which it finds itself, bringing the verbal agreement. To learn more about this topic, read:verb structure.

classification of verbs

Although in the previous section the examples presented have used verbs with the regular structure, with the stem being always kept and the specific endings, this does not cover the totality of the existing verbs in our tongue. In Portuguese, there are other verbal classifications regarding structure.

  • Regular verbs

are the ones present an established pattern, as we observed in the previous section, in which the stem is kept and the endings are already predetermined, since they are repeated in the inflections of different verbs. It is important to emphasize that each conjugation (1st, 2nd and 3rd) has its own pattern, as they have their specific thematic vowels.

Other examples of this classification can be seen in the following section.

  • Irregular verbs

The change that takes place in these verbs doesn't follow a pattern. Often, the thematic endings and vowels are different from the standard and, in some cases, even the stem is different. We have, for example, the verbs to do and to know inflected in the present and past perfect indicative mood, respectively. Look:

To do

Me

I make

I did

You

you do

did you

he/she

Does

Did

We

We do

We did

You

do

did you

They

do

Made

To know

Me

Know

heard

You

you know

did you know

he/she

He knows

heard

We

we know

we knew

You

you know

did you know

They

you know

knew

It is possible to see that, in the present tense, the verb stems were not kept in the 1st inflections natural person and that, in the past perfect tense, the inflections of all people have this feature.

  • anomalous verbs

are verbs that present a profound change in their form when they are flexed. We have, for example, the verbs to be and go, in the present and past perfect indicative mood, respectively. Watch:

To be

Me

i am

Went

You

you are

you went

he/she

É

Was

We

Are

We were

You

you are

you were

They

They are

Were

Go

Me

I will

Went

You

you go

you went

he/she

Go

Was

We

Let's go

We were

You

you go

you were

They

They go

Were

Note that in both examples the radicals do not appear in any of the inflections. Furthermore, the inflections of the past perfect tense are the same for both verbs, which is only possible because they do not have predetermined patterns.

  • defective verbs

these verbs can't be inflected in every person's speech, so they are neither regular nor irregular verbs. It is the case of the verb go bankrupt and to color, which are conjugated below in the present indicative way.

go bankrupt

To color

Me

-

-

You

-

Colors

he/she

-

color

We

we failed

we color

You

falis

Coloris

They

-

color

  • abundant verbs

these verbs havemore than one way accepted by the standard norm depending on the context. As examples of abundant verbs, we have:

  • Pay → paid and paid
  • win → win and win
  • Suspend → Suspended and Suspended
  • Include → Included and Included
  • Expel → expelled and expelled
  • Fix → fixed and correct

Verbal moods and tenses

Verbs are inflected in verbal mannersand verb tenses. There are three verbal modes that are applied in different contexts, and in the indicative and subjunctive, one can observe the presence of different verb tenses that indicate the moment when the action occurred.

  • Indicative

This mode expresses the certainty that the action occurred, occurs or will occur, therefore, the verbs conjugated in the indicative mode express real possibilities for the action to occur.

  • Gift

Indicates something that happens at the time of speech, habits and universal truths.

To play

Run

Leave

Me

earring

I run

childbirth

You

jokes

run

parts

he/she

play

Run

Part

We

we play

we run

we leave

You

toys

straps

Partis

They

play

run

depart

  • past tense perfect

Indicates actions started and completed at a time before speaking.

To play

Run

Leave

Me

I played

I ran

I left

You

you played

ran

departed

he/she

joked

Ran

Left

We

we play

we run

we leave

You

jokes

you correct

parties

They

played

ran

departed

  • Imperfect past tense

Indicate something that happened before the speech, but that stopped happening or past habits.

To play

Run

Leave

Me

played

ran

departed

You

jokes

running

Parts

he/she

played

ran

departed

We

we played

we ran

we left

You

playable

Rails

Partitions

They

played

ran

departed

  • Past-more-than-perfect

Indicate an action that took place before another action that took place in the past.

To play

Run

Leave

Me

play

run

departed

You

jokes

runs

broken

he/she

play

run

departed

We

we played

we ran

we left

You

play

Runners

you will leave

They

played

ran

departed

  • future of the present

Indicate an action that will take place after the speech.

To play

Run

Leave

Me

I will play

I will run

I will leave

You

you will play

you will run

you will leave

he/she

will play

will run

will leave

We

we will play

we will run

we will leave

You

you will play

you will run

you will leave

They

will play

will run

will leave

  • Past Future

Indicates an action that could happen, but depending on a condition. It is the only tense in the indicative way that does not express a certainty.

To play

Run

Leave

Me

play

run

would leave

You

jokes

rushes

Partiries

he/she

play

run

would leave

We

we would play

we would run

we would leave

You

you would play

runways

partirie

They

would play

would run

would leave

  • Subjunctive

This mode indicates less certainty that the action would or does occur, therefore, verbs conjugated in the subjunctive mode express doubts about the possibilities of the action taking place. They are guesses, hypotheses.

  • Gift

Indicates hypotheses and wishes or actions that could occur.

To play

Run

Leave

Me

play

Run

leave

You

toys

run

Parts

he/she

play

Run

leave

We

let's play

let's run

let's leave

You

toys

Corrals

Partials

They

play

run

depart

  • Imperfect past tense

It indicates possibilities and desires, but it has a condition for it to happen.

To play

Run

Leave

Me

play

run

left

You

jokes

you run

Parts

he/she

play

run

left

We

let's play

we run

let us leave

You

playful

Corressels

Partisiles

They

play

run

departed

  • Future of the Subjunctive

Indicates the possibility of something happening later than the speech.

To play

Run

Leave

Me

To play

Run

Leave

You

play

run

leave

he/she

To play

Run

Leave

We

play

we run

we leave

You

games

running

depart

They

play

Run in

depart

  • Imperative

This mode has the specific function of directing an order, a suggestion or a request to another person, which can be affirmative or negative. Therefore, this mode has no conjugation in first person singular, that is, for the subject “I” and conventionally there is the replacement of “he/she” by “you” and “they/they” by “you”.

  • Affirmative

To play

Run

Leave

Me

-

-

-

You

play

Run

Part

You

toys

Run

leave

We

let's play

let's run

let's leave

You

toys

run

I left

You

play

run

depart

  • Negative

To play

Run

Leave

Me

-

-

-

You

don't play

don't run

do not leave

You

Do not play

Do not run

do not leave

We

let's not play

let's not run

let's not leave

You

don't play

don't run

do not leave

You

don't play

don't run

don't leave


Also access: verb inflection

Nominal forms of verbs

It is the forms of the verbs that do not have crunches, that is, they are invariant, not showing time or mode marks. Verbs in this modality play both verb and noun functions. Each nominal form indicates something about the action of the verb. Are they:

  • Infinitive

  • They do not indicate the time when the action takes place, only the action itself.
  • end with -r, such as “playing”, “running” and “leaving”.
  • Can be used as a noun in some contexts.

Example: They love to play.

  • Gerund

  • Indicate that the action is ongoing, happening.
  • end with -ndo, such as “playing”, “running” and “leaving”.

Example: She was running.

  • Participle

  • Indicate an action that has already ended or has been completed.
  • Regular verbs end in -of,as “played”, “run” and “party”.
  • Can be used as adjectives in some contexts.

Example: The toy was broken in half.

verbal phrase

Sometimes two or more verbs come together to create a single meaning. It's what we call verbal phrase. In these cases, a verb has the function of auxiliary verb, which brings the grammatical information from the inflection, while the other has the function of main verb, which brings the semantics, the sense. See some examples:

  • Me had played with her.
    (auxiliary verb “haver” + main verb “play”)
  • I wanted to run every morning.
    (auxiliary verb "want" + main verb "run")
  • Let's go very early tomorrow.
    (auxiliary verb "ir" + main verb "leave")

Know more: Adverbial phrase: functions, uses, examples

verbal voices

At verbal voicesindicate the subject's relationship with the action expressed by the verb. Can be divided into:
Active voice: when the subject performs the action.
Example: The boy read the book.

passive voice: when the subject undergoes the performed action.
Example: The book was read by the boy.

reflective voice: when the subject performs and suffers the action performed at the same time.
Example: The boy combed in the morning.

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