Anomalous verbs: concept, conjugation, examples

You anomalous verbss are irregular verbs that, in addition to presenting a conjugation different from the regular one, present radicals many different according to the conjugation.

The verbs “ser” and “ir” are the main examples of anomalous verbs as they completely change their structure in the conjugations (altering the entire stem). However, some grammarians also consider as anomalous certain verbs that present so much difference, in almost the entire stem, that they end up not fitting in any other. classification.

Read too: Verbal agreement - adequacy of the verb to the number and person of the subject of the clause

Conjugation of anomalous verbs

When conjugated, the anomalous verbs do not follow the same pattern as regular verbs, as well as irregular verbs. However, while irregular verbs follow some tendencies of their own in conjugation, anomalous verbs vary so much that it is not possible to place them in another category. The radical is constantly changed, that is, the base that originates the word is modified, transforming the whole verb. This radical shift happens according to the person and the tense.

Anomalous verbs undergo a profound change in their stem when inflected.
Anomalous verbs undergo a profound change in their stem when inflected.
  • Examples of anomalous verbs

See how the radical of some verbs it is affected according to the person and tense of the conjugation.

  • verb "to have"

Indicative

Subjunctive

Gift

past tense perfect

Gift

me

hey

there was

there is

you

there are

you had

have

he/she

there is

there was

there is

we

we have

we had

let's have

you

you have

you had

have

they

ha

there were

have

The conjugation of the verb “haver” is not regular, because it does not always follow the pattern of regular verbs. Also, by logic, the stem would be “hav”. However, it is possible to notice in the previous table that only the letter "h" is repeated in all conjugations, therefore, the radical is deeply affected, without being constant in the forms. This causes this verb to be considered anomalous by some grammarians.

Let's look at another example.

  • verb "to come"

Indicative

Subjunctive

Gift

past tense perfect

Gift

me

I come

I came

come

you

come

you came

come

he/she

comes

he came

come

we

saw

we came

let's come

you

come

you came

come

they

comes

came

come

Theoretically, the radical would be “come”. Again, we can see that only the letter “v” repeats in all conjugations, so there is no constancy in the stems. This inconstancy is so frequent that this verb is considered anomalous by some grammarians.

  • Verb "to say"

Indicative

Gift

past tense perfect

future of the present

me

I say

said

I will say

you

you say

you said

you will say

he/she

it says

said

will say

we

we say

we said

we will say

you

say

you said

you will say

they

say

they said

they will say

The stem of the verb “to say” would be “to say”, but, in conjugations, it only appears in the present tense (and does not appear in the 1st person singular). The lack of regularity of the stem is frequent to the point that many classify this verb as anomalous.

See too: Verbal rulership - subordination relationship between the verb and another term

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Verb “to go” and verb “to be”

The verbs "ir" and "be" are considered verbs anomalous par excellence, once do not have a single radical. This happens because, depending on the conjugation, we see that the entire word is altered, with no pattern between them.

To be clear, see how conjugations change.

  • Verb go"

Indicative

Gift

past tense perfect

Imperfect past tense

future of the present

me

I will

went

was going

I will go

you

you go

you went

you were

you will

he/she

go

was

was going

will

we

let's go

we were

we were going

we will go

you

you go

you were

yeis

you will

they

they go

were

were going

will

  • Verb to be"

Indicative

Gift

past tense perfect

Imperfect past tense

future of the present

me

am

went

was

Will be

you

you are

you went

eras

you will be

he/she

é

was

was

it will be

we

are

we were

we were

we will be

you

you are

you were

were you

you will be

they

they are

were

they were

will be

solved exercises

Question 1 - Read the following prayers:

I. I filled the tub to shower.

II. I haven't sent the samples yet.

III. I warned you it was competitive.

IV. Let's go to the cinema and watch the new movie.

In which previous clause(s) are verbs considered to be anomalous?

there

b) III

c) II and IV

d) I and II

e) III and IV

Resolution

Alternative E. “Fill”, “take” and “send” are regular verbs, so clauses I and II do not have anomalous verbs. “Avisar” is a regular verb, but “to be” is an anomalous verb. The verb “ir” is also anomalous. Thus, clauses III and IV are those with anomalous verbs.

question 2 – Read the sentence and answer the question:

The human being will still learn and teach a lot.

In the sentence, we have:

a) no anomalous verbs

b) an anomalous verb

c) two anomalous verbs

d) three anomalous verbs

e) four anomalous verbs

Resolution

Alternative B. The word “vai” is a conjugation of the verb “ir”, which is the only anomalous in the sentence. The verbs “learn” and “teach” are regular. The word “to be”, in the context, is not a verb, but a noun: “the human being”.


By Guilherme Viana
grammar teacher

Would you like to reference this text in a school or academic work? Look:

VIANA, William. "anomalous verbs"; Brazil School. Available in: https://brasilescola.uol.com.br/gramatica/verbos-anomalos.htm. Accessed on June 27, 2021.

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