Nomenclature of hydrated salts

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The term hydrated salt applies to a certain type of salts existing. In these salts, we have the presence of a water molecule in their constitution, so much so that the general formula of a hydrated salt is represented as follows:

XY.Z H2O

  • X is any cation;

  • Y is any anion;

  • Z is the number of water molecules that have joined the single salt molecule XY.

See some examples of hydrated salt formulas:

  • AlCl3.6H2O

  • CUSO4.5h2O

  • CaCl2.2H2O

The naming rule for a hydrated salt is as follows:

Anion name + de + cation name + prefix indicating a + hydrated
quantity of

water molecules

NOTE: The prefixes that are used to indicate the amount of water molecules are: mono (1 H2O), di (2H2O), tri (3 H2O), tetra (4H2O), penta (5 H2O), hex (6H2O) and so on.

Now check out five examples of how to name a hydrated salt:

  • AlCl3.6 H2O

In this example, the anion is chloride, the cation is aluminum, and there are six molecules of water (hexa). So, its name will be: Aluminum Chloride hexahydrate.

  • CUSO4.5 hours2O

In this example, the anion is sulfate, the cation is copper II, and there are five molecules of water (hexa). So, your name will be:

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Copper II sulfate pentahydrate.

  • CaCl2.2 H2O

In this example, the anion is chloride, the cation is calcium, and there are two molecules of water (di). So, its name will be: Calcium Chloride Dihydrate.

  • At2ONLY4.10 hours2O

In this example, the anion is sulfate, the cation is sodium, and there are ten molecules of water (Deca). So, your name will be: Sodium sulfate decahydrate.

  • Case4.2H2O

In this example, the anion is sulfate, the cation is calcium, and there are two molecules of water (di). Its name will be: Calcium Sulfate Dihydrate.

We can even assemble the formula for hydrated salt from its name. See some examples:

  • Cobalt II chloride tetrahydrate

In this salt, the cation is cobalt, with a charge 2+ (Co2+); the anion is the chloride (Cl1-) and we also have the presence of four water molecules. Therefore, the formula for salt will be:

CoCl2.4H2O

NOTE: As the charge of the cation and the anion are different, there must be a crossing between these charges, so the result was CoCl2.

  • Sulfate of magnesium heptahydrate

In this salt, the cation is Magnesium, with a charge 2+ (Mg2+, for being from the IIA family); the anion is the sulphate (SO42-) and we also have the presence of seven water molecules. Therefore, the formula for salt will be:

MgSO44.7H2O


By Me. Diogo Lopes Dias

Source: Brazil School - https://brasilescola.uol.com.br/quimica/nomenclatura-sais-hidratados.htm

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