ABNT bibliographic references: how to do it?

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The ABNT - Brazilian Association of Technical Standards - references basically consist of the indication of author(s), title, edition, place, publisher and date of any citation made in a text, which is mandatory in academic papers.

In addition to valuing the scientific basis of a work, making it more credible, the standardization of references facilitates further research and serves for inclusion in bibliographies.

Example:

Example of how to make a bibliographic reference
Example of how to make a bibliographic reference

Let's go to the rules!

Basically here is everything you need to fill out:

Elements of bibliographic references
Elements that should be included in bibliographic references

1. In titles we can place only the first word or all words starting with a capital letter, except for articles (definite and indefinite) and monosyllabic words.

Example:

Example bibliographic reference (title)
Title example with all or just the first word capitalized

2. Bibliographic references must be aligned to the left margin and the separation between one and another reference must be made by a single-spaced blank line. The numeric or alphabetic system can be used.

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2.1. Number system

References can be presented in the order in which they were cited in the text, at the bottom of the page with the citation.

Example:

Example bibliographic reference (numeric system)
Example of bibliographic reference in numerical ordering system

Don't stop there. There are more texts very useful for you:

  • ABNT direct and indirect quote: the right way to do it!
  • Apud or citation citation: how to use correctly!
  • Website quote: how to do it?

2.1. alphabetic system

References can be presented in alphabetical order, at the end of a chapter or at the end of the text in a reference list.

Example:

Example bibliographic reference (alphabetical system)
Example of bibliographic reference in alphabetical ordering system

3. When works by the same author are cited (which have to be inserted one below the other), we can put the name of the author in the first reference and, from the second reference, replace his name by a dash with the size of six spaces.

Example:

Example bibliographic reference (dash in the author's name)
Example of bibliographic reference with works cited by the same author

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How to make book references?

Always have the chart below handy, as it will be your base. The changes that arise will depend mainly on the number of authors of the work.

Elements for ABNT References

1) With only one author

This one you already know!

Example:

Example bibliographic reference (with an author)
Example of a bibliographic reference with an author

2) With up to three authors

If there is more than one author (up to three inclusive), the only difference is that you have to put the authors' names separated by a semicolon and give a space. Thus:

Bibliographic reference with up to 3 authors
Bibliographic reference rule with up to three authors

Example:

Example bibliographic reference (up to 3 authors)
Example of bibliographic reference with up to three authors

3) With more than three authors

If there are more than three authors, it is advisable to indicate them all, but as an alternative, it is allowed to place only the name of the first author followed by the expression "et al" (abbreviation of the expression in Latin meaning "and others"). Thus:

Bibliographic reference with up to 3 authors
Bibliographic reference rule with more than three authors

Example:

Example bibliographic reference (with more than 3 authors)
Example of bibliographic reference with more than three authors

How to refer websites?

After placing the author and title, as is done in books, you must add the expression "Available in:" and enter the email address.

Next, you must add the expression "Access in:" and enter the date of access (inserting the time, minutes and seconds of access is optional). Thus:

Site bibliographic reference rule
Site bibliographic reference rule

Example:

Example of a website bibliographic reference
Example of a website bibliographic reference

Tip: free online referral tool

MORE: Online Referral Engine is a tool that can automate referrals for you. Just enter the information there and it gives you the reference according to ABNT standards. The service is free.

We are sure that these texts can help you even more:

  • ABNT standards: formatting rules for academic papers
  • Pre-textual elements in academic papers
  • How to make ABNT work cover (model and guide)
  • ABNT cover sheet
  • Acknowledgments from TCC (ready model and examples)
  • How to make a summary (ABNT rules)

Bibliography and Bibliographic Reference: Difference

Do you know the difference between bibliographic reference and bibliography?

References are the set of works cited in the text, while the bibliography is the set of works not only cited, but also that were only consulted.

Therefore, everything that appears in the references must be included in the bibliography.

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