Nuclear fission: what is it, fission x fusion, applications

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Fissionnuclear is a natural process that consists of the decay of coresatomicunstable into smaller atomic nuclei by capturing neutronsslow. In this process, a large amount of energy is released in the form of radiation by virtue of differenceinpasta between the original nucleus and the sum of the masses of the nuclei resulting from the radioactive decay.

After capturing a neutron, heavy elements such as uranium, become unstable and end up splitting into smaller nuclei, emitting other neutrons, what forms a reactioninjail with great release of heat and radiation.

Difference between fission and nuclear fusion

THE fissionnuclear occurs when an atomic nucleus becomes unstable, or fissile. Heavy atomic nuclei such as uranium-235, are naturally unstable and tend to disintegrate into smaller and, consequently, more stable nuclei. One of the most used processes to make an atomic nucleus unstable is the catchinneutrons. In this process, slow neutrons are emitted (the low speed of these particles increases the chance of success of their capture by atomic nuclei) towards the atomic nuclei.

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In the nuclear fission of the uranium-235 atom, in addition to the lighter nuclei, neutrons and gamma rays are emitted.
In the nuclear fission of the uranium-235 atom, in addition to the lighter nuclei, neutrons and gamma rays are emitted.

All the energy from this type of reaction arises as a result of the littledifference of mass between the coreoriginal and the newcoresformed. Adding the mass of the latter, we find less mass than the mass of the former. This difference is called defectinpasta. The amount of energy produced in nuclear fission can be calculated using the famous relation of Einstein to the energyinrest:

Lookalso:Einstein and the atomic bomb

THE Fusionnuclear is a process in which two or more light and stable nuclei unite by the action of big onespressures,speeds or temperaturesextremes. These conditions are met, for example, inside the nuclei of stars or during artificial nuclear reactions, as in the case of nuclear warheads.

Applications of nuclear fission

The vast amount of energy released during the process of nuclear fission can be used for power generation in power plantsnuclear weapons. Most of this energy heat the water, evaporating it. By releasing water vapor from the confinement, it is possible to move large generators that operate on the principle of electromagnetic induction, that is, inside these generators, it is possible to find huge rotating magnets, placed inside coilsconductive (Metal wire winding). These generators are capable of generating abundant amounts of electrical energy.

Lookalso: How a nuclear plant works

Another widespread application of nuclear fission is in the medicine. Nuclear medicine uses several radioisotopes (elements with the same number of protons, but unstable) to obtain detailed images of different organs.

Who discovered nuclear fission?

Nuclear fission was discovered in 1938 by researchers Ottouh,LyseMeitner and fritzStrassman. At the time, they realized that the bombing of the uranium with neutrons it produced lighter atoms, like the atoms of barium and krypton.

Solved exercise on nuclear fission

(And either)

The bomb
reduces neutrals and neutrinos,
and fan with the fan of the chain reaction

ANDRADE, C. D. Complete poetry and prose.
Rio de Janeiro: Aguilar, 1973 (fragment).

In this fragment of poem, the author refers to the uranium atomic bomb. This reaction is called "chain" because in

a) 235U fission occurs with the release of a large amount of heat, which continues the reaction.

b) 235U fission occurs energy release, which disintegrates the 238U isotope, enriching it in more 235U.

c) 235U fission occurs a release of neutrons, which will bombard other nuclei.

d) fusion of 235U with 238U leads to the formation of a neutrino, which will bombard other radioactive nuclei.

e) fusion of 235U with 238U, other heavier radioactive elements are formed, which trigger new fusion processes.

Template: Letter C

Resolution

The chain reaction quoted in the poem above is a fissionnuclear. In this process, the atom of uranium-235 catch one neutronslow, becoming unstable. From there, it undergoes nuclear fission, disintegrating into atoms of barium,krypton and others threeneutrons, responsible for destabilizing other uranium nuclei, continuing the chain reaction.

The equation that balances the reaction referred to in the poem is presented below:


By Me. Rafael Helerbrock

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